In Previous existing systems, actually there are several major problems are occurred. In that mainly concentrate on buddy-list search problem. This problem Is take place when huge numbers of messages are occurred continuously. By cause of this search problem, time for passing of messages Is very slow I. E. , time Is delayed to reach particular message to the destination. The reason for occurring this type of problem is â€˜overloaded messages'. I. E. , by cause of overloaded messages this buddy-list search problem is occurred. It is sometimes called as â€˜scalability problem'.Search cost is also called as â€˜communication cost'. When a user arrives, the total number of messages produced by the presence server is nothing but search cost. Search satisfaction is nothing but, time it takes to search the user's arriving buddy list. When the buddy-list search problem is occurred, at that situation there is a chance to delay the message passing. By this cause time is delayed. At the same time, there is need to store that message temporarily up to reach to destination. By this cause, here require extra space to store that message In temporary memory. I. E. , Like cache memory.This Is also one of the problem In already existing systems. The expected number of search messages generated by this AS (presence server) node per unit Is â€œ(n-l If â€˜n' AS nodes present, S = n*(n-l)*(l-n)*u = no*WWW = n*p/4 (I. E. , u= p In) 6. COST EVOLUTIONS The previous existing systems are facing different types of problems. Those are like, buddy-list search problem, which is occurred by cause of overloaded messages. Searching actions are very slow. And then there is a chance to occur the network traffic. And also high constant search latency is appeared. Here, Maintenance cost is also named as search cost.When user arrives, the total number of messages produced by the presence server is nothing but search cost. When user arrives, time it spends to find the user's online buddy list Is nothing but search satisfaction. User is satisfied with mobile presence services when those services are worked properly & at the same time, when the cost for maintenance Is less or cheap. I. E. , when communication cost Is less, then users are attracted to utilize the mobile presence services. Formula for, reducing the communication cost when any data can be where, â€˜n' is distance between any 2 AS nodes. Figure 8. 1: Presence Cloud server overlayIn Figure 8. 1, For example, we consider â€˜9' AS nodes are present in Presence Cloud for distributing the messages or data. If node'8â€² is want to send the data to node'3â€². I. E. , 803 (consider node â€˜2' is intermediate node). Here, two possibility paths are there. First, node â€˜8' is directly go to node â€˜3' (Consider the distance between node â€˜8' & node â€˜3' is 3 SMS I. E. , 803 = sums). Second, AS â€˜8' is send data to AS â€˜2' first and then AS â€˜2' send that data to AS â€˜3'. (Consider distance between 802 = 2. 5 SMS & 203 = 0. 5 km). Now, calculate the communication cost by using the above formula.In this testing, tester tests an application on outside knowledge of an application. Test engineers are involved in this testing. Gray Box Testing & black box testing. I. E. , it is conducted based on both white box & black box testing. Regression Testing Regression testing is defines as, tester should perform the test on system which is already tested before; When conducted test before, at that time outcomes results to made any changes are necessary, at that situation this regression testing perform once again to that system in order to rectify or modify according to user requirements.Acceptance Testing Acceptance testing is performed based on producing any types of inputs at that time t accepts those inputs & produces the exact and correct outcomes. I. E. , it can accept developer's inputs in order to produce best correct results. Stress Testing Stress testing is conducted based on producing the wrong inputs to the system at that time, the system is I. E. , here, developer is given fault inputs to his proposed system at that situation also output is produced exact & successive outcomes. In this project, we are performing the two testing. Those are â€˜acceptance testing & stress testing.These testing are used to test this presence cloud project in order to provide best outcomes. . E. , provide best presence services through mobiles. 10. 2 -rest cases Test cases are constructed based on the inputs giving in order to get correct outputs. These practical outputs are comparing with the expected values or results. At that time, those two outputs are either matched or reach at least nearing to expected outputs. Test cases are dividing into two categories. Those are, Positive test cases Negative test cases These test cases are explained by using tables. In that each column specifies one some approaches.In first column we mention the test case description. In column 2, mention actual value which is produced by the system.For avoiding various existing problems in previous existing systems, here, we introduced or reposed the â€˜Presence cloud' system. In order to avoid the almost all problems in existing systems. For providing best mobile presence services, here, using some effective modules. These modules are given full of support to avoid existing problems in order to provide best presence services. In future work, we have a chance to extend our proposed system more effectively. For achieving this, we are performed several operations. In proposed system (I. E. , presence cloud) should not address the presence server authentication problem.At that situation, there is a chance to hack he user's accounts by unauthorized peoples. I. E. , hackers or attackers, or malicious attackers. So, here, there is no privacy for the user accounts. And also another problem is occurred in presence cloud overlay module which is presented in presence cloud. That is, in that overlay, the direction between the each node to another node is unilateral. In future work, we are providing the security for authentication for the users. In order to protect the user accounts from the attackers or hackers. In future work, we provide bi-directions between each node for exchanging data between users.
TITLE: Why banning the use of cell phones while driving should be mandatory nationwide. 1a.General purpose: To highlight the mis-use of hand-held cell phones whilst driving. 1b.Specific purpose: To reduce road fatalities; by persuading the Government of St.Vincent and the Grenadines to implement a law banning motorists from using cell phones on all roads (major and minor roads) in non-emergencies cases. 1c.Central Idea: Using a cell phone can distract motorists, leading them to taking their eyes off the road or to lose their concentration whilst driving which involves teens.
mis-use of hand-held cell phones
Summarize the Key Points of Introduction
1. Cell phones can be useful in many situations. However they are now being mis-used in non-emergencies cases such as making or receiving regular standard calls, texting and being on others social network sites whilst driving.
2. Road fatalities have increased resulting from poor driving by motorists especially teens whilst they are on their cell phones. Many motorist, pedestrians and animals have been killed or seriously injured due motorist distractions.
3. The Government should implement a law banning motorist from using cell phones on all roads (major and minor roads) throughout St Vincent and the Grenadines as a means of reducing road fatalities Conclusion
Cell phones have been around for over 30years and are now accessible to a range of people; they can be a valuable communication device. However, when used inappropriately, this can lead to road collisions and fatality.
In 2006, Liberty Mutual Insurance Group
Http//:ven.wikipedia .org/wiki/texting- while-driving
In 2006 article American Automobile Association
International Telecommunication Union (NTSB)
Why banning the use of cell phones while driving should be mandatory nationwide. I will be highlighting why banning the use of a cell phones whilst driving should be mandatory throughout St Vincent and the Grenadines. I will be focusing on situations where the cell phone is being used for non- emergencies when driving. Cellular phones were first introduced into civilian life and the market place around the mid- 1980s. Before this period it was used mainly in the military and in some businesses. Over the years, there has been dramatic growth in the use cell phones. Today cell phones are available to everyone around the world regardless of their age or status.
The indiscriminate use of hand held cell phones by persons while driving has resulted in many fatal accidents in recent years and as such is a compelling reason for Parliament to enact legislated to address this precautious situation by banning the use of cell phones while driving in St.Vincent and the Grenadines. It well established that in attentive caused by some forms of distraction is the most common cause of vehicle accidents, engaging in a conversation on a cell phone while driving is a serious distraction in the sense that people lose focus being so imbibed in the conversation that they become totally loss to the surrounding activities.
It may be arguable that accidents caused by cell phone use are far less than those caused by other forms of distractions but that is not important in considering whether a total ban should be placed on the use of cell phone while driving. What is of utmost importance is the safety o the general public; it is not of prime necessity to use a cell phone while driving. A driver may be better advised to pull over at the side of road, stop and use his or her cell phone whether be in to dial a number or to receive an incoming call or text messages which is becoming more popular in today technology world. According to Liberty Mutual Insurance Group 2006 conducted a survey of more than 90 teen from twenty six high schools across United States. The result showed that 37% of students considering texting to beÂ â€œveryâ€ or â€œextremelyâ€ distracting.
A study by the America Automobile Association discovered that 46% of teens admitted to being distracted behind the wheel because of texting. This distracting is alarming The risk of crashing while texting because reading or sending a text diverts the driverâ€™s eyes from the road for an average of 4.6 secondsâ€”the same as driving the length of a football field, blind, at 55 mph. The International Telecommunication Union states that â€œtexting, making calls, and other interaction with in-vehicle information and communication systems while driving is a serious source of driver distraction and increases the risk of traffic accidents increases by 23 times.
While celebrities such as Oprah Winfrey have campaigned against texting while driving, there are reports that the message has not been getting through to teenagers. Perhaps the force and might of government authority might be able to get through to them. The practice has been viewed by many people and authorities as dangerous. It has also been ruled as the cause of some motor -vehicle accidents, and in some places has been outlawed or restricted. Is there any reason why my country St. Vincent and the Grenadines cannot emulate such a restriction?
Cell phones have become a valuable devise for communicating with others. However, there are situations where it can be said that they are being misused. This would include texting whilst driving, receiving or sending calls and accessing face-book/Twitter and instant messaging on whatever social networks. I will make mention of how texting, using face book and using twitter could endanger the life of the driver, animals, passengers and/or other motorist and pedestrians on the road. (Road collisions and fatality). It is so sad that oneâ€™s life have to end just like that or turn into a vegetable because of someone else careless mistake and their future dreams are scattered.
The use of cell phone while driving should not be allowed to continue unabsorbed in any civilized society where human life is valued at the highest. Laws should not only be enacted but they must be enforced and the punishment shall be such as to deter would be offenders. Therefore they must not only penalties but penalties should be rather serious and fitting theÂ offence of using a cell phone while driving. Cell phones have been around for over approximately 30years and are now accessible to a range of people; they can be a valuable communication device. However, when used inappropriately, this can lead to road collisions and fatality.
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